Why is redundancy built in the

Why is redundancy built in the DNA code? Can a triplet codon formore than one amino acid or can amino acids be synthesized by morethan one triplet of codons? How many codons code for 20 aminoacids?

Why does mRNA have to be processed in eukaryotes and what doesinvolve?

What translates the DNA message and how? Explain what tRNA does.How is it possible to have 45 tRNA but 61 mRNA to code for the sameamino acids?

Explain how a ribosome works to generate a protein. Be sure tostart with 2 ribosomal subunits coming together, and include theA,P,E sites in your explanation.


Redundancy in case of genetic code means that an amino acid iscoded by ore than one codon. There are 64 codons that code for only20 amino acids. This is a good thing because if there is a smallmistake during transcription, there is a chance that through theredudancy similar codons could both code for the same amino acid.So even though there was a mistake in the base pair sequence, theamino acid sequence may be unaffected.

Yes a triplet codon can code for more than 1 amino acid.

64 codons code for 20 amino acids.

RNA processing in eukaryotes include capping, polyadenylationand splicing.

Capping is a process of in which modification of the 5’ endstakes place. Methylated guanisine is added to the 5‘ end of theRNA. The cap has four functions. It regulates nuclear export ofRNA, it prevents degradation by exonucleases, it helps in promotingtranslation, it promotes excision of 5’ intron.

Polyadenylation is the addition of several adenosine nucleotidesto the 3’ end of mRNAs called poly A tail. It also protects themRNA from enzymatic degradation on the 3’ end, helps in nuclearexport and translation.

Splicing is a process in which small interrupting sequencescalled introns are removed and the newly formed RNA is edited toform a final matured RNA.

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