# Question 6′ a). what is Nonpar

Question 6

a). what is Nonparametric Hypothesis Tests

b) what does it used for ?

c)  provide an example of when it might be used inpharmaceutical research.

PLEASE MAY I HAVE A BRIEF EXPLANATION FOR EACH SECTION.

a)

Nonparametric tests are sometimes calleddistribution-free tests because they are based onfewer assumptions (e.g., they do not assume that the outcome isapproximately normally distributed). Parametric tests involvespecific probability distributions (e.g., the normal distribution)and the tests involve estimation of the key parameters of thatdistribution (e.g., the mean or difference in means) from thesample data. The cost of fewer assumptions is that nonparametrictests are generally less powerful than their parametriccounterparts

b)

There are some situations when it is clear that the outcome doesnot follow a normal distribution. These include situations:

• when the outcome is an ordinal variable or a rank,
• when there are definite outliers or
• when the outcome has clear limits of detection.

here non-parametric test can be used

c)

Consider a clinical trial where study participants are asked torate their symptom severity following 6 weeks on the assignedtreatment. Symptom severity might be measured on a 5 point ordinalscale with response options: Symptoms got much worse, slightlyworse, no change, slightly improved, or much improved. Supposethere are a total of n=20 participants in the trial, randomized toan experimental treatment or placebo, and the outcome data aredistributed as shown in the figure below.

Distribution of Symptom Severity inTotal Sample

The distribution of the outcome (symptom severity) does notappear to be normal as more participants report improvement insymptoms as opposed to worsening of symptoms.

##### "Our Prices Start at \$11.99. As Our First Client, Use Coupon Code GET15 to claim 15% Discount This Month!!"
Calculate the price
Pages (550 words)
\$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with brilliantassignmenthelp.com
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
Testimonials
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
11,595
Customer reviews in total
96%
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
37%
Customers referred by a friend
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat