Identify 10 APA errors in this

Identify 10 APA errors in this written document.

Behavior Modification: An Alternative to Drug Therapy inTreating Hyperactive Children ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study is to determine whether application ofbehavior modification methods can be an effective and safealternative to amphetamine therapy in the treatment of hyperactiveschool children. Sixty elementary age school children who wereidentified as hyperactive were randomly assigned to one of threetreatment groups. It was concluded that additional research isneeded to determine the generalize ability of the findings tolarger groups and to non-special education classes.In recent years, the use of amphetamines in treating hperactivechildren, has caused much controversy and concern. According tosome researchers, an estimated 400,000 hyperactive school childrenare presently being treated with these drugs. Much of the public’sconcern has to do with the way in which children are diagnosed.Many children, for example, are being treated with amphetaminessolely on the recommendations of school authoritys. Despite thefact that many teachers mistake the normal restlessness ofchildhood for hyperkinesis. Anohter cause for concern stems from alack of follow-up studies on the long-term affects ofamphetamines.As an alternative to drug therapy, researchers have begun to focuson behavior modification techniques that are believed to be moresafer and more effective over time (Strong, 1974). Strong (1974)conducted a two-year study with an autistic boy and found thastpositive reinforcement was significantly more effective than drugtherapy in reducing facial grimacing. In another study, this sameresearcher found token reinforcement to be more effective thenmedication in increasing adaptive behavior in retarded women.Behavior modification techniques have also been studied inclassroom settings. Smith (1969), for example, was able to reduceina ppropriate classroom behavior of a ten-year old hyperactivegirl by using these techniques. In another study, Nixon (1969)tested the effects of behavior modification in increasing the“on-task performance” of 24 boys who had been diagnosed ashyperactive by there teachers. In the Nixon (1969) study, their wasfour treatment groups which consisted of various reinforcementtechniques and control. Results of a one-way analysis of varianceindicated no significant differences between the groups. Althoughit was reported that someof the children in each gorup made great improvement in staying ontask in learning situations. The Nixon study, however, containedpossible sources of error: (1) treatment groups only contained 6subjects each; (2) there were only 8 treatment sessions;(3) no instruments were used to evaluate children’s performance;and (4) the children knew they were participating in astudy.Widespread use of amphetamines in treating hyperactivechildren may be a dangerous practice. Moreover, behaviormodification techniques have shown to be just as effective inreducing hperactive behavior in children in certain settings.The sample group for this study will be selected from thepopulation of North Side Educational Center for behaviorallydisturbed, elementary-age children. Those children who werediagnosed as “hyperactive” or “hyperkinetic” by the school’spsychologist were cosnidered the population. The stratified randomsampling method is to be used to insure that children ages 6through 12 were represented in the study.

Answer:

APA errors include:

Grammatical errors, formatting errors, punctuation errors,in-text citation errors, incorrect header, the in-text citationwhich do not match referencing, incorrectly done quotingetcetera.

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Below is the document, boldening theerrors:

Behavior Modification: An Alternative to Drug Therapy inTreating Hyperactive Children ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study is to determine whetherapplication of behavior modification methods canbe an effective and safe alternative to amphetamine therapy in thetreatment of hyperactive school children. Sixty elementary ageschool children who were identified as hyperactive were randomlyassigned to one of three treatment groups. It was concluded thatadditional research is needed to determine the generalize abilityof the findings to larger groups and to non-special educationclasses.In recent years, the use of amphetamines in treatinghperactive children, has caused much controversyand concern. According to some researchers, an estimated 400,000hyperactive school children are presently being treated with thesedrugs. Much of the public’s concern has to do with the way in whichchildren are diagnosed. Many children, for example, are beingtreated with amphetamines solely on the recommendations of schoolauthoritys. Despite the fact that many teachersmistake the normal restlessness of childhood for hyperkinesis.Anohter cause for concern stems from a lack offollow-up studies on the long-term affects ofamphetamines.As an alternative to drug therapy, researchers have begun to focuson behavior modification techniques that are believed to bemore safer and more effective over time (Strong,1974). Strong (1974) conducted a two-year study with an autisticboy and found thast positive reinforcement wassignificantly more effective than drug therapy in reducing facialgrimacing. In another study, this same researcher found tokenreinforcement to be more effective then medicationin increasing adaptive behavior in retarded women.Behavior modification techniques have also been studied inclassroom settings. Smith (1969), for example, was able to reduceina ppropriate classroom behavior of aten-year old hyperactive girl by using thesetechniques. In another study, Nixon (1969) tested the effects ofbehavior modification in increasing the “on-task performance” of 24boys who had been diagnosed as hyperactive by there teachers. Inthe Nixon (1969) study, their was four treatmentgroups which consisted of various reinforcementtechniques and control. Results of a one-way analysis of varianceindicated no significant differences between the groups. Althoughit was reported that someof the children in each gorup made greatimprovement in staying on task in learning situations. The Nixonstudy, however, contained possible sources of error: (1) treatmentgroups only contained 6 subjects each; (2) there were only 8treatment sessions;(3) no instruments were used to evaluate children’s performance;and (4) the children knew they were participating in astudy.Widespread use of amphetamines in treatinghyperactive children may be a dangerous practice. Moreover,behavior modification techniques have shown to be just as effectivein reducing hperactive behavior in children incertain settings.The sample group for this study will be selected from thepopulation of North Side Educational Center for behaviorallydisturbed, elementary-age children. Those children who werediagnosed as “hyperactive” or “hyperkinetic” by the school’spsychologist were cosnidered the population. Thestratified random sampling method is to be used toinsure that children ages 6 through 12 wererepresented in the study.

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Behavior Modification: An Alternative to Drug Therapy inTreating Hyperactive Children

ABSTRACT:The purpose of this study is to determine whether the applicationof behavior modification methods can be an effective and safealternative to amphetamine therapy in the treatment of hyperactiveschool children. Sixty elementary age school children who wereidentified as hyperactive were randomly assigned to one of threetreatment groups. It was concluded that additional research isneeded to determine the generalize ability of the findings tolarger groups and to non-special education classes.In recent years, the use of amphetamines in treating hyperactivechildren has caused much controversy and concern. According to someresearchers, an estimated 400,000 hyperactive school children arepresently being treated with these drugs. Much of the public’sconcern has to do with the way in which children are diagnosed.Many children, for example, are being treated with amphetaminessolely on the recommendations of school authorities. Despite thefact that many teachers mistake the normal restlessness ofchildhood for hyperkinesis. Another cause for concern stems from alack of follow-up studies on the long-term effects ofamphetamines.As an alternative to drug therapy, researchers have begun to focuson behavior modification techniques that are believed to be saferand more effective over time (Strong, 1974). Strong (1974)conducted a two-year study with an autistic boy and found thatpositive reinforcement was significantly more effective than drugtherapy in reducing facial grimacing. In another study, this sameresearcher found token reinforcement to be more effective thanmedication in increasing adaptive behavior in retarded women.Behavior modification techniques have also been studied inclassroom settings. Smith (1969), for example, was able to reduceinappropriate classroom behavior of a ten-year-old hyperactive girlby using these techniques. In another study, Nixon (1969) testedthe effects of behavior modification in increasing the “on-taskperformance” of 24 boys who had been diagnosed as hyperactive bythere teachers. In the Nixon (1969) study, there were fourtreatment groups that consisted of various reinforcement techniquesand control. Results of a one-way analysis of variance indicated nosignificant differences between the groups. Although it wasreported that someof the children in each group made great improvement in staying ontask in learning situations.

The Nixon study, however, contained possible sources oferror:

(1) treatment groups only contained 6 subjects each;

(2) there were only 8 treatment sessions;

(3) no instruments were used to evaluate children’s performance;and

(4) the children knew they were participating in a study.

Widespread use of amphetamines in treating hyperactive childrenmay be a dangerous practice. Moreover, behavior modificationtechniques have shown to be just as effective in reducinghyperactive behavior in children in certain settings.

The sample group for this study will be selected from thepopulation of North Side Educational Center for behaviorallydisturbed, elementary-age children. Those children who werediagnosed as “hyperactive” or “hyperkinetic” by the school’spsychologist were considered the population. The stratified randomsampling method is to be used to ensure that children ages 6through 12 were represented in the study.

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The above is the error corrections in the document.


 
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