Given what we have discussed a

Given what we have discussed about biochemicalreactions of photosynthesis in terrestrial plants, what do yousuppose are the potential mechanisms plants could use to compensatefor a reduction in the biochemical processes of photosynthesisduring stress? You should discuss possible stressors and presentyour answer in two parts. A) Short term responses (acclimation), B)Long term responses (evolution/adaptatation)

list examples of stresses that can lead to a reduction andspecifically identify how these stressors will decrease biochemicalefficiency (i.e., excess energy)- Demonstrated clear understandingof the short-term and longterm mechanisms for dealing with stress.- Short-term: list 3-5 specific examples Longterm: list 3-5specific examples


The present study investigates the effect of both long and shortterm salinity stress in chickpea plants and the protective effectof exogenously applied nitric oxide.

Sodium nitroprusside used as nitric oxide donor.

Salinity treatments given before sowing were termed as long termstress and thirty days after germination as short term stress.

Sodium nitroprusside was given as foliar spray 30 days aftergermination to both long and short term salinity treatedplants.

Increased in membrane injury %, ROS content and lipidperoxidation levels were observed under salinity stress.

Sodium nitroprusside treatments decreased ion leakage and lipidperoxidation levels significantly.

Salinity stress resulted in induction of antioxidatve enzymesbut induction was more under short term salinity stress as comparedto long term salinity stress.

Nitric oxide showed its positive effect by further increasingthe activities of antioxidant enzymes.

Salinity stress also altered the level of antioxidantmetabolites by reducing the ascorbate redox ratio and glutathioneredox ratio.

No donor treatments increased the redox ratios and showed itspositive effects.

Seed yield also decreased under salinity stress with morereduction under long term salinity than short term salinity.

Nitric oxide had a positive effect on seed yield and biomassaccumulation.

On the basis of above studies, it is proposed that short termsalinity stress resulted in a greater increase in membrane injury(%), malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species and hydrogen peroxidecontent as compared to long term salinity stress.

It activated the antioxidant defense system more pronouncedly,resulting in a lesser oxidative stress and a smaller decline inplant yield.

However, long term salinity stress had a lesser effect onantioxidant defense system, thus leading to a higher oxidativestress and ultimately a higher decline in plant yield.

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