Diabetes Mellitus Review Quest

Diabetes Mellitus

Review Questions

Short Answer

1.      Describe themajor characteristics of the two main types of diabetes mellitus.Explain how these characteristics influence nutrition therapy.

2.      Identify andexplain the symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. How wouldyou explain to a patient the differences between hyperglycemia andhypoglycemia and how to recognize and treat these symptoms?

3.      Describe thepossible long-term complications of poorly controlled diabetesmellitus. Can these complications be avoided? If so, how?


1) It is a metabolic disorder characterized by a high bloodsugar ,symptoms often are frequent urination ,increased thrist ,and increased hunger . The mian two types of diabetes melitus aretype 1 and type 2 .

Diabetes mellitus type 1 : it is due to the damage of insulinproducing cells in the pancreas, In this case pancreas producelittle or no insulin ,so sugar cannot get into the cell to produceenergy and the people must use insulin injection.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 : In this type the pancreas produceinsulin and are not sufficient or doesnot work properly , it is thecommon type of diabetes . It can be sometimes be controlled byweight management ,excercise and diet. and also includes oralglucose lowering medications or insulin injections .

the nutritional therapy should be to prevent and to controldiabetes , the diet promoted should be high in vegetables , furits, whole grains,legumens and nuts and should avoid processed redmeat , refined grains and food that containing sugar,

2) The symptoms of diabetes are frequent urination , Excessivethrist , unexplained weight loss, extreme hunger , sudden visionchanges, tingling and numbness of hands and feet , sores that areslow to heal , uncontrolled blood sugar levels are above therecommented target range including A1C level above 7.0%

hyperglycemia refers to higher level of glucose in the bloodandd it can be reconized by fatique , frequent urination ,increased thrist, weight loss, headache, blurred vision , troublein concentrating and can be treated with changing the lifestylepatterns , drinking more water , exercise, oral medication andinsulin therapy

Hypoglycemia is the condition in which the blood glucose levelis lower than yhe normal, the signs and symptoms include hunger,confusions, heart palpitation , nausea, sweating, dizziness andweakness, shaking.The person having hypoglycemia should immediatelyconsume a glucose tablet , candy or some juice ,this can bringrapid result and then eat slow release carbohydrate such as bread,cereals, rice or furit.

3) The main long trem complications of diabetes are heartdisease, nephropathy, retinopathy,neuropathy, stroke , feet andskin can develop sores and infection and resulting in amputation ,problem in digesting the food. these problems and the complicationscan be avoided by early diagonosing the disease conditions andhaving proper medication ,excersise and having balanced diet withlow carbohydrate and sugar.

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