Choose two infectious disease

Choose two infectious disease processes that either affectventilation, oxygenation or perfusion. Describe in detail how theinfectious process affects the lungs in each selected diseaseprocess. Focus on how the infections can cause problems withventilation, gas exchange/diffusion across the alveoli, andoxygenation. Of the two infectious disease processes chosen, listthe risk factors for each that predispose the patient to theinfectious disease process. What are the complications of eachdisease process if left untreated?


Thr lungs are most vulnerable organsbecause it has direct external contact by the air that flowsthrough it.

Knowledge of the radiologic pattern ofinfectious lung disease in a given patient often helps to narrowthe scope of the differential diagnosis.

Fortunately the recognized histopathologic patterns of lunginfection are fairly limited (airway disease, acute lung injury,cellular infiltrates, alveolar filling, and nodules), and thesetypically correlate with a particular group of organisms.

Tuberculosis maybe the most important disease but fungal agentscauses Histoplasmosis.

Histoplasmosis is a pulmonary and systemic infection that iscaused by infective spores (fungi), most commonly found in the soilof the central and eastern United States. Histoplasmosis istransmitted by inhalation of dust from the soil or bird and batfeces. The spores form lesions within the lung parenchyma that canbe spread to other tissues. The incidence of fungal infection isrising, particularly in immunocompromised, immunosuppressed, andchronically debilitated individuals who may also be receivingcorticosteroid, antineoplastic, and multiple antibiotictherapy.

Different clinical forms of histoplasmosis are (1) acute, benignrespiratory disease, which results in flulike illness andpneumonia; (2) acute disseminated disease, which can result inseptic-type fever; (3) chronic disseminated disease, which involveslesions in the bone marrow, spleen, and lungs and can result inimmunodeficiency; and (4) chronic pulmonary disease, whichmanifests as progressive emphysema.

Management of histoplasmosis may include the following

Antiinfective agents



Antifungal therapy

Supportive care appropriate for affected areas in the variousforms of histoplasmosis.

Tuberculosis mostly occurs in the right lung coz of the bronchusis shorter and broader.

The aerobic bacteria needs an oxygen richenvironment so right lung upper pole has a low ventilation perfusionratio so the oxygen is present more. Aerobic bacteriseasily grow in upper pole.

Tuberculosis bacilli thus has a site of lower part of upper poleand upper part of lower pole.

Damages the parenchyma of lungs and disturbs alveolar gasexchange.

complications- Tuberculosis may manifest whole body organs. Sodangerous. Also lung parenchyma forms ghon complex. Lungs getdamaged so need to be dissected.

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