# a- If the radius r of a circle

1. a-

If the radiusr of a circle is measured tobe r 0.325+\-0.001m, thencalculate the area of the

circle A =  3.14r 2,as well as theuncertainty in the area.

b-Explain the differencebetween precision and accuracy.

c-Do systematic errors affectprecision or accuracy? Do random errors affect precision oraccuracy?

accuracy describes the differencebetween the measurement and the part’s actual value, whileprecision describes the variation you see when youmeasure the same part repeatedly with the same device.

Systematic errors in experimentalobservations usually come from the measuring instruments. They mayoccur because:

• there is something wrong with the instrument or its datahandling system, or
• because the instrument is wrongly used by theexperimenter.

The accuracy of measurements is often reduced by systematicerrors

Random errors in experimentalmeasurements are caused by unknown and unpredictable changes in theexperiment. These changes may occur in the measuring instruments orin the environmental conditions.

Examples of causes of random errors are:

• electronic noise in the circuit of an electricalinstrument,
• irregular changes in the heat loss rate from a solar collectordue to changes in the wind.

systematic errors affect accuracy while randomerrors affect precision.

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