A 44 yr old woman presents to

A 44 yr old woman presents to the office for evaluation of skingrowths on her right arm. She reports that a few weeks ago shedeveloped some small, red bumbs on her right palm. This thenulcerated, but it never was painful. She has been putting topicalantibiotics on the area with little effect. Recently she noticednew growths extending up her forearm that appear similar to theoriginal lesion. She is employed as a florist and has been for thelast few years.

1. What fungal pathogen might you suspect the patient issuffering from?

2. A microscopic examination of the biopsy from the lesion wouldmost likely reveal what characteristic forms

3. If a culture was performed, how might the characteristicforms detected be different?

4. How do you differentiate this group of fungi from otherfungi? (Hint: Temperature, growth rate, color, hyphae, others)


1. A maculopapular rash is made of both flat and raised skinlesions. The name is a blend of the words “macule,” which are flatdiscolored skin lesions, and “papule,” which are small raisedbumps. These skin lesions are usually red and can merge together.Macules that are bigger than 1 centimeter are considered patches,while papules that are merged together are considered plaques.

A maculopapular rash is a marker for many diseases, allergicreactions, and infections. Most of the time, the cause is a viralinfection. See a doctor if you have a maculopapular rash. The rashcould indicate a serious disease.

Contact dermatitis is an allergic skin reaction that produces anitchy, red skin rash. The rash may consist of raised, red bumpsthat ooze, drain, or crust. … Keratosis pilaris is a skincondition marked by an overgrowth of a protein called keratin. Itcauses small bumps around hair follicles on the body.

2. A biopsy is a medical test commonlyperformed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or aninterventional cardiologist. The process involves extraction ofsample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presenceor extent of a disease. The tissue is generally examined under amicroscope by a pathologist; it may also be analyzed chemically.When an entire lump or suspicious area is removed, the procedure iscalled an excisional biopsy. An incisionalbiopsy or core biopsy samples a portionof the abnormal tissue without attempting to remove the entirelesion or tumor. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with aneedle in such a way that cells are removed without preserving thehistological architecture of the tissue cells, the procedure iscalled a needle aspiration biopsy. Biopsies are most commonlyperformed for insight into possible cancerous or inflammatoryconditions.

Most skin lesions are benign; however, some concern has causedthe patient to make an inquiry, and a correct diagnosis isimportant. The plethora of dermatologic conditions makes a correctdiagnosis challenging. To combat this, the clinician must approachthe evaluation of the lesion in a systematic way. In addition tothe physical characteristics of the lesion, the patient’sdemographics, presence of associated symptoms, related systemicdisorders, and location and growth patterns of the lesion all giveclues to adequately diagnose and treat.

The accurate diagnosis of any skin lesions can be made byhistologic examination of a skin biopsy. However, clinicians mustgain the clinical acumen to correctly identify common benign skinlesions and to distinguish those skin conditions that do need abiopsy and possible further treatment.

3. Study of cultural characteristics of microorganism is donewith a purpose to distinguish different microorganisms into varioustaxonomic groups. So the objective of this experiment is tounderstand different characteristics of microorganisms and toclassify them into various groups basing on theircharacteristics.

Culture and Sensitivity. A culture is a test to find germs (suchas bacteria or a fungus) that can cause an infection. A sensitivitytest checks to see what kind of medicine, such as an antibiotic,will work best to treat the illness or infection.

During a bacteria culture test, a sample will be taken from yourblood, urine, skin, or other part of your body. The type of sampledepends on the location of the suspected infection. The cells inyour sample will be taken to a lab and put in a special environmentin a lab to encourage cell growth.

4.hypha consists of one or more cells surrounded by a tubularcell wall. In most fungi, hyphae are divided into cells by internalcross-walls called “septa” (singular septum). Septa are usuallyperforated by pores large enough for ribosomes, mitochondria andsometimes nuclei to flow between cells.

Fungi have well-defined characteristics that set them apart fromother organisms. Most multicellular fungal bodies, commonly calledmolds, are made up of filaments called hyphae. Hyphae can form atangled network called a mycelium and form the thallus (body) offleshy fungi. Hyphae that have walls between the cells are calledseptate hyphae; hyphae that lack walls and cell membranes betweenthe cells are called nonseptate or coenocytic hyphae)

In contrast to molds, yeasts are unicellularfungi. The budding yeasts reproduce asexually bybudding off a smaller daughter cell; the resulting cells maysometimes stick together as a short chain orpseudohypha . Candidaalbicans is a common yeast that forms pseudohyphae;it is associated with various infections in humans, includingvaginal yeast infections, oral thrush, and candidiasis of theskin.

Some fungi are dimorphic, having more than one appearance duringtheir life cycle. These dimorphic fungi may beable to appear as yeasts or molds, which can be important forinfectivity. They are capable of changing their appearance inresponse to environmental changes such as nutrient availability orfluctuations in temperature, growing as a mold, for example, at 25°C (77 °F), and as yeast cells at 37 °C (98.6 °F). This abilityhelps dimorphic fungi to survive in diverse environments.Histoplasma capsulatum, the pathogen thatcauses histoplasmosis, a lung infection, is anexample of a dimorphic fungus .

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